Development is the act of bringing change both social and cultural in the society to improve people’s lives. The essence of development is to enhance the standards of the country and its citizens. In his talk, Professor Adelman emphasizes on three points in development: how interdependence creates inequality, how integration creates backwardness and inferiority, and what is meant to become a peripheral in the world system.
Interdependence of states is an economic strategy of eradicating poverty as they come together and help one another in forging ahead in development. Working together with various companies in different states brings more quality ideas that generate higher income enhancing development (Jenkins, 2006). However, the more they come together to create new ideas, the individuals within the states are divided amongst themselves based on wealth and class in the society thus creating inequality. The act of interdependence benefits in case both states are positive interdependencies such that each has an idea that supports the other. The northern countries joining to the southern ones does not benefit the former as they are fully dependent upon the latter. Development, according to Adelman, is seen as a continuation of colonization since most southern countries seek opinion from their donors in the north. It gives the north superiority over them and can decide whether to get paid in the form of an asset or liability when offering them loans. It promotes inequality that builds racism and classism between the two.
Integration among nations is taking over the activities of the south by northern countries in order to help them achieve their goals as a state. It generates backwardness in development and inferiority (Jenkins, 2006). The northern countries tend to take control over many of the companies and businesses by giving funds, which makes them partly the owners of the companies they fund thus making the southern state inferior. In case a northern state introduces their products at a cheaper price in the south, their products are thus not marketable, which enhances a backward development of the very couth state making it inferior. The northern states too are affected by the integration as they incur huge costs in setting up the workshops and funding bringing backward development. They also fail to develop quality products that they sell since there is no competition thus lack of innovation. It makes development a challenge in both the north and the south as wealth is being redistributed between the two.
The world system consists of different periphery nations. They are shaped by worldwide associations and cultures. The result is their identity to the world and structural development. There exist peripheral, semi peripheral, and core countries in this system. The peripheral is the lowest in development and status quo supplying the core with everything cheap inclusive of labor and resources. Such states are promoted with benefits of job opportunities which are, however, low paid. The working conditions are poor as a rule. The governments of these countries consist of corrupt politicians who only lower citizens’ rights to favor transitional corporations from which they gain extra credits instead of giving these funds to the citizens at risk. Economically, they are retarded in development. The semi-peripheral states use the western colonial model to develop. Among such countries is Japan, which extracted wealth from its colonies. China used a model from its own history.
Kothari’s reading depicts some themes covered by professor Adelman in the guest lecture. All these topics concern development in both southern and northern states of the world. In both Kothari’s reading and Adelman’s lecture, they emphasize how development is a continuation of colonization. Adelman speaks of integration and interdependence both creating superiority of the developed nations to the developing ones, which were the very nations colonized in the early era. The former end up dumping their own products in the developing countries. The cheaper prices for these products make the citizens of the latter prefer them to domestically produced goods. Interdependency also generates inequality leading to southern states be left in the periphery side. During colonization, only the colonialists were superior and ordered the inferior as they mistreated them. I agree with Adelman as it might be modern colonization with no mistreatment but superiority and rulings of the south by northern states.
Kothari, on the other hand, idealizes the fact that development is a continuation of colonialism through life events like how homogeneous the developed countries are employing other people from African countries when they go there in search of green pastures (Kothari, 2006). The author wonders how of use he can become when he is in Africa, while the indigenous population end up doing blue-collar jobs like weeding and nursing children. The knowledge got from already developed professionals comes with a cost. Just like how colonials used to misuse the labor of the Africans, nowadays, the superiors use their status through gain superiority. Kothari analyzes how the post-colonial period enhanced development through the setting up of an academy in the UK that focused on training professionals in beneficial skills that bettered their lives.
However, there are various contrasting ideas between the two in the context of development. Professor Adelman covers development from the year 1850 onwards, while Kothari readings talks of 1974 post-war and beyond. Kothari analyzes how development is a continuation of colonization through life events and historical moments, while Adelman blends in history with his stories. Finally, Kothari views his life stories as colonialism transition towards the development and bettering of life, while Adelman sees the incorporation of colonies a cause of inequality through interdependency. Both authors also have various views on Chinese and Japanese development. Kothari approaches the development using real-life stories and real-life events, while Adelman incorporates historical context, viewing the western colonial development mode of Japan.
There are various subjects covered in class and Kothari’s reading that speak to the guest lecture. They range from past events, which majorly affected the development of colonialism, Non-Governmental Organizations funding the South states, Global North and South and, Freedom, Power, and Intersectionality. There are various past events that affected the current development as seen in both Kothari’s reading and our lecture. Inclusive of the many is colonialism, which fostered development, both in the developed and developing countries. During the colonial period, the developed countries took slaves to build their existing companies, and the developer gained knowledge from them (Cornwall, 2006). The guest speaker talked about how development is a continuation of colonialism.
Another topic is Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs) learned in class. These organizations fund the developing countries and build schools and various organizations in former colonies. They then get superiority and more recognition within the country than the local people. The speaker talked about how inter-dependency generates inequality through investments by NGOs from the north in the developing countries, which resulted in inequality.
Global North and Global South are a theme stated in Kothari’s reading that the speaker elaborates on. Kothari writes how redistribution of wealth supports globalization. The wealth comes from the northern to southern countries. Adelman says that integration of resources between these two states brings backward development and inferiority, especially to the south.
Freedom from the lecture can be viewed as both bad and good. It is mostly positive since one can explore their skills to enhance development. Power is seen when the western people exploit the developing countries’ resources and labor at the same time studying and becoming more professional. Inter-sectionality is talked about in the sense that people from the developing countries have their own version of history in the development and colonialism. All these economic policies are stated in our class.
In conclusion, I agree with the guest lecturer on the issue of development and colonialism. I have come to an agreement that it is actually a continuation of colonialism having most people from the developed country’s ruling, funding, investing, and taking cheap labor together with resources from the developing countries. They do educate them to develop, but they also give them big loans, which they struggle paying off without being cut off any amount. In my perspective, the cycle will continue unless developed countries start eradicating poverty themselves without asking for anything in return like in the colonial times.