2. How can the nurse who practices in a clinical setting best contribute to nursing research? a. Collect data related to active research question b. Implement the nursing process into all patient care c. Encourage patients to participate in research projects d. Take a course related to the design of a research project 3. What is the term used to describe the systematic, controlled process employed in quantitative research? a. Empirical evidence b. Scientific method c. Replication d. Inductive reasoning 4. What term, associated with the positive paradigm, is used to identify the belief that a phenomenon is a result of causes and not happenstance? a. Control b. Assumption c. Determinism d. Generalizability 5. What is a basic assumption of the constructivist (naturalistic) paradigm? a. Reality is ordered and regular. b. Evidence is gathered by the senses. c. Reality is a composed of multiple realities. d. It forms the basis of most evidence-based nursing practice. 6. What level of evidentiary hierarchy is represented in a quasi-experimental type of research study? a. Level I b. Level II c. Level III d. Level IV 7. What term is used to identify the use of new knowledge into practical real-world applications? a. Evidence-based practice (EBP) b. Clinical practice guidelines c. Research utilization (RU) d. Translation science 8. What is the final step in the effective utilization of evidence-based practice (EBP) into one’s individual nursing practice? a. Appraising the evidence b. Assessing effectiveness c. Integrating the evidence d. Retrieving relevant evidence 9. PIO or PICO are acronyms used to identify the guidelines used to formulate what component of a research project? a. Literature search b. Clinical question c. Evidence appraisal d. Evidence integration 10. What process is used to assess the outcome of a newly developed evidence-based guideline? a. Protocol development b. Research utilization c. Risk analysis d. Pilot test 11. What term is used to identify a specific place where research data collection occurs? a. Site b. Setting c. Sample d. Study 12. How is a characteristic that differs among members of a group described? a. Homogeneous b. Continuous c. Variable d. Discrete 13. What term is used to identify the behavior a researcher is most interested in explaining? a. Dependent variable b. Independent variable c. Operational definition d. Conceptual definition 14. What form does data collected for a qualitative research study take? a. Statistics b. Numeric values c. Measurable responses d. Narrative information 15. What are findings that have been proven to have a high probability of being “real” referred to as? a. Abstract but factual b. Grounded in theory c. Statistically significant d. Hypothetically correct 16. What term is used to identify the predicted relationship between variables associated with a quantitative research study? a. Purpose b. Argument c. Hypothesis d. Significance 17. What is purpose of a problem statement? a. To identify the aim of the research study b. To achieve the cooperation of the participants c. To confirm the feasibility of the stated research problem d. To state the predicted relationship between the identified variables 18. Which term describes a hypothesis that serves to predict only the existence of a relationship between research variables? a. Null b. Inductive c. Complex d. Nondirectional 19. Which statement best describes the effect of a statistical analysis on the probability of a hypothesis being correct? a. The goal of a statistical analysis is to prove that the hypothesis is true. b. Only the probability of a null hypothesis can be evaluated by a statistical a nalysis. c. A statistical analysis results in a tentative conclusion regarding the acceptance of the hypothesis. d. A statistical analysis is not designed to provide evidence regarding the degree of probability of a hypothesis. 20. Which question has relevance when critiquing a research article? a. Are the hypotheses clearly stated? b. Has the hypothesis been proved or disproved? c. Is the research quantitative or qualitative in mature? d. Does the research problem have significance to professional nursing? 21. What phrase is used to identify a description of a study written by its primary researcher? a. Open b. Primary c. Secondary d. Abstracted 22. What assumption can be correctly made when the ancestry approach has been used to find studies on a particular research topic? a. Bibliographic databases were used as the initial research strategy. b. The focus of this search was for limited distribution sources referred to as grey literature. c. A pivotal early study was used as a tool in order to search forward for more recent relevant studies. d. The reference list of a single report has been used as a source to identify early relevant research studies. 23. What process provides a careful appraisal of a research study’s strengths as well as weaknesses? a. Review matrices b. Research critique c. Literature review d. Purpose formulation 24. When critiquing a literature review, what characteristic should be evaluated? a. Effectiveness of organization b. Number of study participants c. Inclusion of all existing, relevant material d. Publication dates of research studies cited 25. When using bibliographic software to conduct a review of the literature, what is the advantage of the mapping capability? a. Allows the use of nonstandard keywords b. Eliminates the need for Boolean operators c. Maximizes the search by implementing subject headings d. Minimizes the need for a Help button to formulate the search 26. A defensible theoretical rationale assures which characteristic required of high-quality research? a. Conceptual clarity b. Delineation of theory c. Conceptual integration d. Delineation of framework 27. What type of theory attempts to describe a large piece of the human experience? a. Grand b. Shared c. Descriptive d. Middle-range 28. What do conceptual models provide to the process of nursing research? a. Nursing theories b. Context for nursing studies c. Evaluation of nursing phenomena d. Groundwork for nursing interventions 29. Which is an example of a borrowed theory? a. Roy’s Adaptation Model b. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory c. Beck’s Theory of Postpartum Depression d. Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings 30. What do researchers use when seeking to develop a grounded theory? a. Association with an existing grand theory b. Deductive reasoning to prove a hypothesis c. Data-driven explanation for an existing phenomena d. Existing acceptance by the participants of the study 31. . Which ethical principle protects a research participant’s right to be informed of the risks associated with the study? a. Beneficence b. Full disclosure c. Self-determination d. Respect for human dignity 32. Requiring that a research participant voluntarily agree to be involved in a study is associated with which ethical principle? a. Justice b. Beneficence c. Right to privacy d. Respect for human dignity 33. Which participant right is protected by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)? a. Justice b. Privacy c. Full disclosure d. Respect for human dignity 34. When can a researcher engage in covert data collection? a. In order to protect a participant’s privacy b. When the participant is considered vulnerable c. To assure the emotional safety of the participant d. When full disclosure would bias the participant’s responses 35. What is the purpose of a debriefing between the researcher and that study’s participants? a. Air complaints b. Discuss study results c. Conduct a risk/benefit assessment d. Assure that no ethical dilemmas exist 36. Which term is used to refer to the accuracy and consistency of the information obtained in a study? a. Validity b. Reliability c. Credibility d. Reflexivity 37. Which characteristic is achieved when a research method produces confidence in the truth of the collected research data and in the researcher’s interpretations? a. Bias b. Credibility c. Randomness d. Triangulation 38. Research control is used to minimize what negative effect? a. Cost overruns b. Extended timelines c. Outside influences on the dependent variable d. The risk of physical or emotion harm to the participants 39. What effect does the presence of a bias have on a research study? a. Strengthens participant buy-in with the study b. Minimizes the transferability of the findings c. Maximizes the credibility of the study d. Distorts the results of the study 40. What term is used to identify a study where data is collected three or more times often over a very short period of time? a. Cohort design b. Mixed design c. Between-subject design d. Repeated measures design 41.What is the primary aim of many quantitative nursing studies? a. Determining the possible presence of a cause-and-effect relationship of a nursing intervention on a patient’s condition b. Demonstrating proof that a counterfactual situation probably exists when physical care is provided by nursing engaging in evidence based-care c. Designing a study that helps support the existence of a third-party variable on cause-and-effect relationship of nursing care and patient prognosis d. Minimizing the effect of independent variable manipulation to facilitate causality between a nursing intervention and a patient’s health status 42. What term is used to identify the effect on an independent variable? a. Empirical relationship b. Biologic plausibility c. Confounding variable d. Dependent variable 43. When considering experiments, what term is used to identify the individuals who are not given the intervention being studied? a. Comparison group b. Wait-list group c. Control group d. Cohort group 44. What does descriptive research attempt to summarize? a. The frequency of a specific event b. The effect of a random event c. Relationship among variables d. The status of phenomena 45. What research design creates a situation where the subjects serve as their own controls? a. Crossover b. Prospective c. Time series d. Retrospective 46. What is the best method for minimizing the risk to the validity of a research study? a. Randomization of treatment conditions b. Using a homogeneous research sample c. Implementing statistical control d. Pair matching participants 47. What is the key function of a quantitative research design? a. Ruling out possible threats to the validity of the results b. Allowing for the presence of confounding participant characteristic c. Preventing the unintended existence of a randomizing block design d. Implementing a variety of instrumentation models to assure effect data collection 48. What type of validity is best enhanced by the implementation of an intention-to-treat analysis? a. External b. Internal c. Construct d. Statistical conclusion 49. What term is used to identify the ability to detect true relationships among a collection of variables? a. Compensatory effect b. Manipulation check c. Statistical control d. Statistical power 50. What term is used to denote the inability to show the exactness of the relationships after the confounding variables have been controlled? a. Mortality b. Maturation c. Low precision d. High statistical control
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