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PHL 320 Final Exam

1

 

The term __________ refers to the inner guiding moral values, beliefs, and principles used by a person to examine a situation and govern his or her behavior.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

autonomy

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

ethics

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

bias

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

authority

 

2

 

Identify the unstated conclusion in the following argument: The most hardworking employee in the company will receive the Employee of the Year award. Doug has been working exceptionally hard all year round.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Hardworking employees win the Employee of the Year award.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Doug has not yet received an award from the company.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Doug is the most hardworking employee in the company.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Doug will win the Employee of the Year award.

 

 

 

3

 

Which of the following rules of ethical decision making focuses on providing the greatest good for the greatest number of people?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The moral rights rule

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The justice rule

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The utilitarian rule

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The golden rule

 

question4

 

When would an argument be considered valid?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

When the premise of the argument is unquestionably true

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

When it is impossible for the conclusion to appear after the premise

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

When it is impossible for the premise to be true and the conclusion to be false

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

When the argument is sound

 

5

 

Which of the following is the first step in the decision-making process?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Seeking feedback

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Generating alternatives for a decision

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Assessing alternatives

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Realizing the need for a decision

 

6

 

Which of the following terms refers to an approximate assessment of the credibility of a claim?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Background information

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Categorical imperative

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Initial plausibility

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Hypothetical imperative

 

7

 

__________ is a written approach to creative problem solving and decision making.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Groupthink

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The Delphi technique

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The nominal group technique

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Brainstorming

 

8

 

Which of the following takes place in the final stage of the decision-making process?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Examining why any expectations for a decision were not met

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Ranking the various alternatives in order of practicality

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Giving middle managers sufficient resources to achieve a goal

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Making minor decisions related to the chosen alternative

 

9

 

Which of the following is true of a good inductive argument?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The greater the support the premise provides for the conclusion, the weaker is the argument.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The lesser the support the premise provides for the conclusion, the stronger is the argument.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The premise of a good inductive argument demonstrates its conclusion.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The premise of a good inductive argument supports its conclusion.

 

10

 

The management of a small-scale cosmetics company wants to increase awareness of their brand and its products in the market. They decide to choose between two alternatives: either launch a new advertising campaign on social media or offer promotional discounts in select stores. They conduct research on which of these two alternatives would be the most viable for the company. They compare the potential costs and potential benefits of each alternative. In this scenario, which of the following criteria is being evaluated by the management of the company?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Legality

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Ethicalness

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Economic feasibility

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Innovative capacity

 

11

 

A cosmetics company has manufactured a new range of skin care products. The top management wants to create a common tagline for the entire range of products and therefore decides to get the managers of the company involved in the decision-making process. It conducts a number of sessions in which the managers are asked to work together and think of innovative taglines for the products and share their ideas with the rest of the group. Group members are specifically asked to be open to all ideas, however offbeat they may be. The members of the group are then asked to pick a tagline after debating the pros and cons of the most popular ideas. This scenario illustrates __________.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

delayering

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

brainstorming

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

the Delphi technique

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

the nominal group technique

 

12

 

A(n) __________ presents a consideration for the acceptance of a claim.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

fact

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

argument

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

opinion

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

issue

 

13

 

Which of the following is a question to be asked when one is presented with a claim?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

When does the claim become a true statement?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

What is likely to happen if the claim is examined in detail?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Does the claim speak about one particular subject?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

When does the content of the claim pose a credibility problem?

 

14

 

Identify the conclusion in the following argument: Mark always leaves his phone at home when he goes to the gym. He has not been answering any calls in the past hour, so he is at the gym.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Mark does not answer calls when he is at the gym.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Mark leaves his phone at home when he goes to the gym.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Mark has not been answering calls.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Mark is at the gym.

 

15

 

Which of the following serves as the most reliable source of information about the world in general?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The background information one possesses

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

One’s personal interests

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Things that one learns from others

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

One’s own observations

 

16

 

Which of the following occurs as a result of group members’ being unable to simultaneously understand all the alternatives that are generated in a brainstorming session?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Groupthink

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Production blocking

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Delayering

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Feedback control

 

17

 

The two factors that are used to assess the credibility of claims are claims themselves and their __________.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

premises

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

soundness

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

sources

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

validity

 

18

 

An automobile company decides to do its bit for the environment by introducing new models of electric cars. The company’s long-term goal is to eventually stop manufacturing gasoline cars and focus on manufacturing electric cars. The managers of the company reached this decision after critically evaluating the effects of car fluids and car emissions on the environment. They promise to do everything within their power to reduce the company’s carbon footprint. Which of the following approaches does this scenario illustrate?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The defensive approach

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The accommodative approach

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The obstructionist approach

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The egoistic approach

 

19

 

When a firm exhibits the highest degree of social responsibility, it has most likely adopted __________.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

the defensive approach

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

the proactive approach

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

the accommodative approach

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

the obstructionist approach

 

20

 

Identify the unstated premise in the following argument: John is indifferent and has a laid-back approach to work. John should be fired.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Employees who strictly follow their company’s work policy will never be fired.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Anyone who is indifferent and has a laid-back approach to work must be fired.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

John is not only indifferent but also has a laid-back approach to work.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

John should be fired because he is violating company policy.

 

21

 

Which of the following is the final step in the decision-making process?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Generating alternatives

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Implementing the selected alternative

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Learning from feedback

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Recognizing the need for a decision

 

22

 

__________ refers to a decision maker’s ability to discover unique and original ideas that lead to viable courses of action.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Strategy

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Creativity

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Problem identification

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Problem formulation

 

23

 

Which of the following is a practice that would help foster creativity in an organization?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Rewarding employees who come up with innovative ideas

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Holding on to unproductive ideas instead of eliminating them

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Withholding feedback, regardless of whether it is constructive or unconstructive

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Avoiding the use of contests to encourage employees for fear of promoting unhealthy competition

 

24

 

The top management of a cereal manufacturing company wants to change the packaging of their products and appeal to attract a younger age group. Since the company is located in three cities, the top management wants the managers from each city to weigh in and give their suggestions for improvement. A group leader is first picked, and the problem to be solved is written down. After this, a questionnaire is e-mailed to all the participating managers. The managers are asked to list down solutions to the problem and e-mail the questionnaire back to the group leader. This scenario illustrates the first few steps of __________.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

the nominal group technique

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

brainstorming

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

production blocking

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

the Delphi technique

 

25

 

In which of the following approaches to social responsibility do managers often put their own interests first and cause other stakeholders to be harmed yet manage to stay within the law and abide by legal requirements?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The defensive approach

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The accommodative approach

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The obstructionist approach

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The proactive approach

 

26

 

Which of the following practices should be avoided by managers who aim to foster creativity in their organizations?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Allowing employees to make mistakes and learn from them

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Attempting to speed up a creative solution to a problem

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Giving employees the opportunity to experiment with radical ideas

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Encouraging creative employees to take risks

 

27

 

Which of the following statements is an example of an objective claim?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Shakespeare was a better poet than Milton.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The sun sets in the west.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Summers in California are very warm.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

A dog is man’s best friend.

 

28

 

__________ are often considered to be the most critical stakeholder group.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Suppliers

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Customers

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Employees

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Managers

 

29

 

Creativity is most likely to result when:

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

employees are prevented from making mistakes.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

managers constantly monitor talented employees.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

employees are given the freedom and opportunity to take risks.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

managers try to speed up the process of working on a creative solution.

 

30

 

Which of the following statements is an example of a subjective claim?

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

The earth is round.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Mozart is the greatest musical composer to have lived.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

There is life after death.

 

·              Correct Answer

 

 

Aliens exist in other galaxies in the universe.

 

 

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